ഉപയോക്താവിന്റെ സംവാദം:Dr V SANKARAN NAIR

വിക്കിനിഘണ്ടു സംരംഭത്തിൽ നിന്ന്
Jump to navigation Jump to search

XncphnXmwIqÀ: Bkvt{Sm BÀ¡ntbmsfPn ]T\¯n\v A\ptbmPyamb Øm\w hn. i¦c³ \mbÀ

]ucmWnI Ime§fnÂ, BZnaa\pjyÀ, BImi§fn ZÀin¨ {]Xn`mk§sf F§s\bmWv DÄ s¡m­ncp¶qsh¶pw AXns\ \nXyPohnX¯n {]tbmP\{]Zam¡nsb¶papÅ hnjbs¯ ]Tn¡p¶Xn s\bmWv Bkvt{Sm BÀ¡ntbmsfPn F¶p hnfn¡p¶Xv. BImihpambn `qanbnse Hcq kvXw`tam aµnc tam inetbm, ]ucmWnI kwkvIrXnIfnse GsX¦nepw \nÀaanXntbm IrjntbmsSm¸w _Ôs¸Sp¯nbp Å s]mcp¯s¸Sp¯epIfn km£yw \n¡p¶p. AXv aXs¯bpw hmkvXphnZysbbpw kwtbmPn¸n¨ncn ¡p¶p. tPymXnÀimkv{X kw_Ônbmb A\pjvTm\§Ä, ]mc¼cyapdbv¡v BÀPn¨n«pÅ AdnhpIÄ, sFXnly§Ä, FÃm ]ucmWnI kwkvIrXnIfnepw aX§fnepw h¶p tNÀ¶ ]cmaÀi§Ä, F¶nhbn \n¶psams¡ AXXp kwkvIrXnbn \oemImiw hln¨ncp¶ ]¦ns\ Ipdn¨pÅ hnhcw \ap¡p In«p¶p ­v. kqcy³ hk´ EXphn `qa²ytcJbpw chn{Im´hr¯hpw tOZn¨p IS¡p¶ _nµp BZn _nµp BWv. Cu tajmZn _nµphns\ Xncn¨dnbm³ th­n ASbmfs¸Sp¯nbncn¡p¶Xv ♈ F¶ NnÓw sIm ­mWv. cminaÞe¯nse BZys¯ Cu ASbmfw, ap«\mSnsâ sIm¼ns\ kqNn¸n¡p¶p. tPymXnimkv {XÚÀ Cu ]ucmWnI kwÚsb ‘V’ F¶p hmbn¡p¶p. ‘V’ F¶m ‘shÀWÂ,’ hk´Imes¯ kw _Ôn¨ F¶ÀYw. tIcf¯n A¶pw C¶pw hk´ EXphn BtLmjn¡s¸Sp¶ hnjp BNcn¨p hcp ¶ coXn a\Ênem¡p¶Xv NÀ¨ sNbvXpsIm­ncn¡p¶ hnjb¯n\v HcpÄ¡mgvN \ÂIpw. hk´Ime¯n hn¯p apfbv¡p¶p. CeIÄ apgph\pw s]mgnbv¡q¶ ac§fn CeIÄ XfncnSp ¶p. ImÀjnIamb ]pXphÀjmcw`amWnhnsS Ipdn¡s¸Sp¶Xv. hnjphnâ¶v kp{]`mX¯nÂ, ‘Nmep IodpI’ F¶ Hcp NS§v Irjn¡mÀ A\pjvTn¡p¶XneqsS, awKfIcambn s\ÂIrjn kamcw`n¡pIbmbn. AXn\p tijapÅ ]¯p Znhkw hn¯p hnXbv¡pw ssX\Soen\psams¡ ip`Icamb Zn\§fmWv. Cu NS§pIfpw hnizmk§fpw apXnÀ¶ XeapdbnepÅhÀ, a®n \n¶pw agbn \n¶pw, D¸¶§fn \n¶pw DÄs¡m ­ ]mT§fmWv. AXpsIm­pXs¶ AXv ssIadnªph¶ Hcp ]mc¼cyhpamWv. kabw hyàncq]¯n Z£nWmb\ tcJbn \n¶pw kqcysâ hSt¡m«pÅ bm{XbmWv D¯cmbWwþ aIckw{Iaw ap X IÀ¡SIkw{Iaw hscbpÅ Cu bm{Xbv¡nsS `qa²ytcJ¡v t\sc apIfnÂ, cmhpw ]Iepw Xpeyam bn hcp¶ ZnhkamWv hk´hnjphw. kqcy³ sadnUnsb³ þ \«p¨bv¡v F¯pt¼mÄ Xe¡papIfn kqcys\ ImWmw. D¨cminbn ØnXn sN¿p¶ {Klw D¨³þ\pw {Klw D¨t£{X¯nÂ, Gähpw D¨`mK bn \nev¡Â AXyp¨hpw BWv. Hcp {Kl¯nsâ iàn ]qÀ®amIp¶ cmin D¨cmin BWv. `mcXob tPymXnja\pkcn¨v kqcy\v taS¯n 10 Un{Kn AXyp¨hpw BWv. aebmf¯n AXv taS¸¯v F¶dnb s¸Sp¶p. cminIfn BZyt¯Xv taSw. kzcq]w BSnt\t¸msebmWv. taSamkw 1þBw XnbXnbmWv taShn jp. Cu DÕhs¯ hnjpkw{Im´n F¶pw ]dbpw. kqcy³ AXyp¨\mIp¶ taSw 10þ\v taS¸¯v asämcp hntijZnhkamWv. taSw ]¯p Ignªm AXyp¨¯n \n¶pw Xmtgm«pÅ Cd¡ambn. kqcysâ X ¡me hmkw Xpemw cminbnemIpt¼mÄ AXv Xpem¸¯v Bbn IW¡m¡p¶p. _e£bw Im«p¶ Cu th f ‘AXn\oNw’ BWv. kqcy³ D¨cminsb {]m]n¡p¶ AXnD¨Znhkw, FÃm hoSpIfnepw, ]¯p XncnbpÅ \nehnf¡p I¯n¨v tIcfsa§pw ]¯mwDZbw BLmjn¡s¸Sp¶p. khntijX BÀ¶ Cu kµÀ`¯n tIcf¯n se N´Ifn ImÀjntImev]¶§fmb tN\, tN¼v, aªÄ, C©n XpS§nbhbpw am{Xaà ssIthebn XoÀ¯ IpSIÄ, ASp¡f ]m{X§Ä XpS§nbhbpw hnev¸\bv¡p h¨ncn¡pw. B sImÃs¯ Gähpw ipt`mZÀ¡amb Zn\§fmsW¶v IW¡m¡n ]pXnb kwcw`§Ä¡p XpS¡w Ipdn¡m³ Ghcpw X¿mdmIp ¶p. Hcp Ce¦¯n BNcn¨phcp¶ ]¯mw DZbw Image 1 v2.jpg Ieam³ sIm¼ns\ Ae¦cn¡pw ap¼v k]vXamXr¡Ä {]XnjvTbmbpÅ A]qÀhw t£{X§fn H¶mWv shÅmbWn ImÀjnI tImtf Pn\p kao]w ØnXn sN¿p¶ Ip­d¯e `KhXn t£{Xw. c­p\mÄ \o­p\n¡p¶ hmÀjnI ]qPbpw s]m¦mebpw Cu hÀjhpw tkmÕhw sIm­mSnbncp¶Xv ]¯mapZb¯nsâ A¶mbncp¶p. XobXn \nÝ bn¡p¶Xv IWnbmcmWv. ]me¸pcv Imhv `KhXn t£{Xsa¶pw hnfnt¸cpÅ Cu t£{X¯nte¡v `b`àn ]pcÊcw Hcp ^Àem§v Zqcw AIsebpÅ Ce¦w ]ctZhXm `{ZImfn t£{Xk¶n[nbn \n¶pw Ieam³ sIm¼n tZhnsb Fgp¶Ån¨v tLmjbm{XtbmSp IqSn sIm­phcp¶p. Ieam³ sIm¼ns\ hln¡p¶Xv Hcp I\yIbmWv. I\yI CÃm¯]£w IpSpw_¯nse ImcWhcmbncn¡pw B IrXyw \nÀhln¡pI. ]mÀ hXn tZhn Ieam\n khmcn sN¿pIbmsW¶p k¦ev]w. image 2 v1.jpg Ieam³ sIm¼n tZhnsb Fgp¶Ån¨v tLmjbm{XtbmSp IqSn sIm­phcp¶p. AwKw F¶m aqÀ²mhv F¶ÀYw. Xebpw incÊpw D¯amwKw BWv. Ccmsse (Ieam³) F¶ kÀh\mat¯mSp tNcpt¼mÄ CcmssebwKw Bbn. ‘am´e’ F¶ÀYw hcp¶p. A£camäw (metathesis) ImcWw Ccmsse, ‘CeÀ’ Bbn. CcmssebwKw CeÀAwKwþhpw XpSÀ¶v Ce¦hpw Bbn. ‘am´e’sb Bcm[n¡p¶ ]qPyØm\amWv Ce¦w. Ieam³ hml\ambpÅ ZpÀK Isse, Ccmsse Aâvtem]pIfpsSbpw UodpIfpsSbpw BWp§sf Ipdn¡phm\pÅ Xangv ]Z§fm bncp¶p. ]penáÀ tKm{XhÀK¯nÂs]«hÀ, Ieam³ sIm¼psIm­v ZpÀKmtZhnsb Ae¦cn¨ncp¶p. ChnsS Ieam³ sIm¼v shdpsamcp `qjWw am{Xw. F.Un. 7þBw \qäm­nse kmlnXyIrXnbmb s]cpwIYbn ZpÀKbpambn Ieam\ns\ _Ôs¸Sp ¯nbpÅ ]cmaÀiw D­v. Ieam³ hml\ambpÅ ZpÀK Xangn IssebqÀ¯n, Issebm\¯n F¶n§ s\bmWdnªncp¶Xv. IebqÀI¶n (I¼cmambWw) F¶pw ]mbv Isse¸mssh, IssebaÀsiÂÆn, Isse¸cnbpÀXn (Nne¸XnImcw) F¶n§s\bpw ]cmaÀiap­v. Nne¸XnImc¯nse hÀW\Ifn \n¶pw sImässhbpsS hml\w B¬Icnam³ BsW¶p ImWmw. {]uVamb sIm¼pItfmSpIqSn Ieam\nsâ ]pd ¯p Ibdn sImässh khmcn sNbvXncp¶p. HdnÊbnse ]¯mw \qäm­nse `pht\izc¯nse aptàizcw t£{X¯n Icnam\nsâ apIfn Nhn«n \n¶p sIm­v \r¯w sN¿p¶ A½ssZh¯nsâ cq]w ImWmw. sImässhbpambn Cu A½ ssZhs¯ _Ôs¸Sp¯p¶q. knwlØbmb tZhn Xangn BfnbqÀ¯n F¶dnªncp¶p. knwlhÀK¯n s]« Hcp km¦ev]n I arKamWv Bfn. ZpÀKbpsS hml\sa¶ \nebv¡pÅ knwl¯nsâ hchv, ImÀjnIcwK¯v h¶p tNÀ ¶ ]ptcmKXnsb, AhØm´cs¯bmWv Im«p¶Xv. Ieam\nsâ apIfn IbdnbpÅ tZhnbpsS Fgp¶ Ån¸v ]ucmWnIImes¯ ]Xnhmbncp¶q F¶ hkvXpXbn ASnhcbnSp¶p. IpetZhX D¨tZhXbmWv Ce¦¯n\pÅn {]thin¡phm\pÅ IhmS§Ä, Ing¡p \n¶pw asäm¶v hS¡p \n¶pw A§s\ c­p­v. ]¯mapZb¯n\v Xte¶mÄ am{Xta Ah c­pw Xpd¡pIbpÅq. ]me¸qÀ Imhp `KhXn t£{X ¯nse s]m¦mebv¡pw ]qPmIÀ½§Ä¡pw tijw \S AS¨m B sImÃw apgph\pw Ah ASªncn ¡pw. Imehpw kqcy\pw Znhkhpw aplqÀ¯hpw ‘s]mgpXv’ BWv. Hcp {]tXyI aplqÀ¯w k^eam¡m³ th­n am{Xw Ce¦w Xpd¶p hbv¡p¶XneqsS, ChnsS, Imew aqÀ¯naÂ`mhw sImÅp¶Xmbn Im Wmw. hnjphnâ¶v D¨kabw kqcys\ t\sc Xebv¡v apIfn ImWmw. At¶ Znhkw \ngep­mhnÃ. B ZnXy\v taSw D¨cminbmWv. hk´Ime¯v, taScminbn kqcy³ IS¶p t]mIp¶Xp sIm­v kqcys\ kw _Ôn¨ hntij kw`hw ImÀjnI]camb Imcy§Ä¡p XpS¡w Ipdn¡m³ HuNnXy]qÀhamb kµÀ`am bn (s]mgpXv) IcpXp¶p. C¡mcyw ]ctZhXsb D¨tZhXbmbn ImWm³ CS \ÂIn. Ime¯nsâ aqÀ¯n bmb IpetZhX D¨tZhXbmIp¶p. Cu IpetZhXbpw IpSpw_ssZhhpw ]ctZhXbmWv. th\en s]mcnªp InS¡p¶ ]mSw c­pNm ]q«n I«bpS¨p s]mSnbm¡n ]¯mapZb¯nsâ ip`aplqÀ¯¯n \ne¯nsâ sFizcytImWn aq¶p ssI\ndtb hn¯nSp¶Xns\ s]mgpXpapSn F¶p ]dbpw. Ct¶ ZnhkamWv Irjn¡mÀ aq¶Snbfhv NmepgpXv, Hcp \pÅv s\Ãphn¯v hnXbv¨v ImÀjnI hÀj ¯nsâ kamcw`w Ipdn¡p¶Xv. ]ng IqSsX s]bvXpIn«p¶ CSnagbn hn¯nsâ ]pXnb \m¼v apf¨p s]m´p¶Xpw CSh¸mXn¡pÅ ImehÀj¯n s\ÂsNSnbmsI k¼pãambn Xocp¶Xpw. IÀ¡SIw HSp §p¶tXmSp IqSntbm Nn§amk¯nsâ Bcw`t¯mSpIqSntbm, s\Ãv sImbvsXSp¯v ]¯mb§Ä \ndbv ¡pw. AXv Ip¯nsbSp¯pÅ ]ps¶Ãcn sIm­v HmWkZy hn`hkar²ambn Hcp¡pw. ]¯mapZb¯nâ¶v Ieam³ sIm¼ntednbpÅ ]ctZhXbpsS ]pd¸mSv Nn§amk¯n ]mÀhXnbpsS knwlmtcmlWt¯mSp IqSn Ahkm\n¡p¶p. {]XoImß]cambpÅ Bcm[\ hn{Klmc[\bpsS BKa\¯n\p ap³]v `mcXobÀ C{µnbtKmNcamb Fs´¦nepw hkvXp¡sf Bcm[n¨ncp¶Xv {]Xncq]ImßIXz]camb Bcm[\mk{¼Zmbambncp¶q. Nne ]ucmWnI kwkvIrXnI fn Ieam\ns\ ‘s]cpIp¶ hÀjw’ Bbn IW¡m¡nbncp¶p. Ieam\nsâ Imew XpS§p¶Xv hk´Im e§fnepw. Nm{InIambn kw`hn¡p¶ Poh·cWþ]p\ÀP·§fpsS ]cnWma{Ia¯nsâ ASbmfambn Bcm [n¡s¸«ncp¶ Ieam³, `uXnIambn kkyPme§fpsS hfÀ¨bpsS klPamb ssPhLSnImcambpw ]¦p hbv¡p¶p. hk´Ime¯nsâ Ahkm\L«¯n kw`hn¡p¶ Ieam³ sIm¼nsâ {it²bamb hfÀ¨ bpw kkyPme§fpsS hfÀ¨bpw X½n _Ôw Ds­¶v sXfnbn¡s¸«ncn¡p¶p. sImà AÐvw A\pkcn¨v taSw (April-May), 9þBw amkamWv. AXpambn _Ôs¸« XanÄ amkamb Nn¯nc, XangcpsS A­p ]nd¸mWv. hk´Imes¯ hcth¡m³, taSw H¶n\v BtLmjn¡p¶ Hcp ASnb´ncw BWv taShnjp. RmäpthebpsS XpS¡sa¶ Irjn Bcw`ambn, taSkw{Iaw ImÀjnI Ie­ dn Øm\w ]nSn¨ncn¡p¶p. ]ctZhX Ft¶m ]¯mapZb¯nâ¶v ]ctZhX¡v khmcn sN¿m\pÅ arKw F¶ k¦ev¸¯ntem ]ctZhXbpsS ]qPyØm\¯p h¨v Bcm[n¡p¶ Ies¦m¼nsâ shfns¸Sp¯epI sf Ipdn¨v Bcmtb­nbncn¡p¶p. image 3 v4.jpg Ce¦w ]ctZhX Ies¦m¼v: {]IrXy\pkcWamb LSnImcw

   	arKhnjmWw (Ieam³), sIm¼v (sN½cnbmSv) F¶nh {]IrXy\pkcWamb LSnImcambn hÀ ¯n¡p¶p. aq¶mw hbÊn sIm¼p hfcm³ XpS§p¶ {]Xn`mkw Ieam\nsâ BbpjvImew \o­p\n ¡p¶p. taSw cminbn kqcy³ hcp¶tXmSpIqSn sIm¼p apf¨p XpS§pw. Hcp LSnImc kam\w, arK hnjmWw hfÀ¨bpsS aq¶p L«§sf Im«n¯cp¶p. hfÀ¨bnencn¡p¶ ams¦m¼nsâ kqcy]Sw t]mep Å arZpemhcWw hfÀ¶p XpS§n ssZÀLyw BÀPn¡p¶ L«w, th\¡mew Ahkm\n¡p¶tXmSp IqSn Cu shÂshäv s]mgnªp t]mIp¶ L«w, {]P\\Ime¯nsâ A´yw icXv Imet¯mSpIqSn kam KXamIp¶ L«w, Dd¸pÅXpw \nÀPohambXpw AkvXn sIm­p \nÀ½n¨Xpamb arKhnjmWw AtXmSp IqSn s]mgnªp hogp¶ L«w F¶n§s\ \mep L«§Ä. P\phcn amkamIp¶tXmSpIqSn Ieam\nsâ i cocw ]pXnb hnjmWw hfÀ¯nsbSp¡phm³ X¿mdmIp¶p. sIm¼nsâ km¶n²yw am\knI kzØX \ ãs¸Sm\nSbmIpt¼mÄ Ah ap³Imev¸¯nsIm­v \ne¯pam´phm\pw At\ym\yw IÅ¡s®dnbm\pw XpS§pw.

t^mt«m ]ocnbUnkw Zn\cm{X§fpsS ZoÀLXmcayt¯mSv kky§Ä¡pÅ {]XnIcWamWv t^mt«m ]ocnbUnkw. IÀ ¡SI kw{Im´n D¯cmbWm´amWv. hk´Ime¯n\pw D¯cmbWm´y¯n\panS¡pÅ ImeL«¯n k¦oÀ®amb ]e Xcw tlmÀtamWpIfpsS ]ckv]c {]h¯\§Ä sIm­v ams¦m¼nsâ hfÀ¨sb \n b{´Whnt[bam¡nbncn¡pIbmWv. kky§fntetbm {]mWnIfntetbm ctkmev]¯nØm\amb Hcp {khWLS\ AYhm {KÙnbmWv shfn¨t¯mSp {]XnIcn¡p¶ ss]\nb ¥m³Uv. Ieam³ sIm¼nsâ hfÀ¨sb Dt¯Pn¸n¡p¶ Cu ¥m³Uv hn«bbv¡p¶ t]in hfÀ¨sbbpw ssewKnI hfÀ¨sbbpw \nb {´n¡p¶ sStÌmÌotdm¬ F¶ tlmÀtam¬ ams¦m¼nsâ hfÀ¨sb s]cp¸n¡p¶p þ Hcp kw`h ]c¼cbv¡p Xs¶ {]mcw`anSp¶p. Pohimkv{X]cambXpw ]cnØnXn kw_ÔambXpw Bb A\h[n LSI§sf IqSmsX ams¦m ¼nsâ hfÀ¨bpsS Nm{InIamb BhÀ¯n¡pÅ kabw \nÝbn¡epw (t^mt«m ]ocnbUnkw) ams¦m¼n sâ hfÀ¨sb kzm[o\n¨ncp¶p. aIckw{Im´nbpsS BZy\mÄ apX IÀ¡SIkw{Im´nbpsS BZy \mÄ hscbpÅ Zn\§fnÂ, A¶¶pÅ ]Iensâ ssZÀLyw (t^mt«m]ocnbUv), BImi¯n IpdpI s\bpÅ kqcyNm]¯nsâ hSt¡m«pÅ apt¶ä¯nsâ ASnØm\¯n hÀ²n¡p¶p. arKhnjmW¯nsâ {]XoImßIX Zriytam AZriytam Bb shfn¨t¯mSv {]XnIcn¡p¶, {]Imi¯nsâ {]hÀ¯\¯n\v s]s«¶p hnt[bamIp¶ kky§fpsS ]qhnSÂ, hfÀ¨mhncmaw Ces]mgnbÂ, \n{ZmhØ, F¶n§s\bpÅ hfÀ¨ bpsS L«§fpsS XpS¡w \nÀ®bn¡m³ Ignbpw. Hcm­p am{Xw \ne\n¡p¶ kky§fpsS ]qhnSensâ XpS¡w Gsd¡psd t^mt«m]ocnbUnk¯nsâ \nb{´W¯nemWv. arKhnjmW¯nsâ hfÀ¨bneqsS, {]IrXniàn X¡Xmb EXp¡sf shfns¸Sp¯p¶p. {]tXyIn ¨pw hk´Ime¯nsâbpw ic¯vIme¯nsâbpw Bcw`s¯¡pdn¨v. "I\yIm`qan'bn ImÀjnI kwcw` §Ä Bcw`n¡phm\pÅ kabw-þDghv, hnX, sImbv¯v, AsX XpSÀ¶pÅ \S]Sn{Ia§Ä F¶nhbv¡pÅ kqN\IÄ Irjn¡mÀ¡v e`n¡p¶p. am\nsâ PohnXN{Iw BWv, hnizmk{]amW¯nsâ apJyBIÀjW tI{µwþam³ Ip«nbnSp¶Xv, ams¦m¼v hnImkw {]m]n¡p¶Xv, tcma]mfn s]mgn¡p¶Xv ioXImehpw CW tNc Imehpw hcp¶Xn\p apt¶mSnbmbn tcma]mfn s]cp¡p¶Xv, sIm¼v sImgn¡p¶Xv Chbvs¡m¸w s\Ãp apf¨p­mIp¶Xnsâ Nm{InIamb Bhr¯nbpw GIIme¯p kw`hn¡p¶XmWv. kkyhfÀ¨bpsS cq]tcJbn hÀj]mXw, Xm]\ne, ]I shfn¨w F¶nh kzm[o\w sNep¯nbncn¡p¶Xp ImWmw. Image 4 v5.jpg Ce¦w {]IrXnkuµcy¯nsâ {]XoIambn hÀ¯n¡p¶ arKhnjmWw s\ÂIrjn¡mÀ¡v kp`n£X ssI hcn¡phm\pÅ amÀKZÀi\w \ÂIpIbmWv. Xnf§p¶ kzÀWs¯ Xpe\s¸Sp¯p¶ a«nemWv s\Ãnsâ emfnXyw \nesImÅp¶Xv. arKhnjmWhpw s\¡Xncpw kar²nbpsSbpw sFizcy¯nsâbpw {]XoI§fmWv. taSw ]nd¶p ]¯mw \mÄ hn¯phnXbpsSbpw ssX \Soensâbpsams¡ Znhkambn amdn bXp {]No\Imew apX¡pÅ A\p`hÚm\¯nsâ ]cnWnX^eambn«mWv. ]¯mapZb¯nâ¶p ] ¯pssX F¦nepw \SWsa¶ hnNmcw, XpSÀ¶v BNmcambn. AXn Ieam³ sIm¼nsâbpw kkyPme §fpsSbpw hfÀ¨bnse kmayw Hcp aX¯nsâ ]cnthjw t\SpIbmWv Ce¦¯nÂ. XncphnXmwIqdnse ]c¼mcmKX ssienbn ]WnX hmkKrl§fnse Ce¦§fn Ies¦m¼ns\ Bcm[nbv¡m\mbpÅ Hcp `n¯namSw Is­¯m\mbXn AXnibsam¶panÃ. (teJI³, Cu {]_Ô hnjbw, History: Straight from the Horse’s Mouth, F¶ tIcf `mj C³Ìnäyq«vv {]kn²oIcn¨ {KÙ ¯nÂ, ka{Kambn NÀ¨ sN¿p¶p).